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旧文----乱弹  

2010-05-18 10:34:17|  分类: 乱翻书 乱弹琴 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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2007-05

 

钱钟书 “读《拉奥孔》”里提到,狄德罗《关于戏剧演员的诡论》其要旨是:演员必须自己内心冷静,才能惟妙惟肖地体现所演角色的热烈情感,他先得学会“不动于衷”,才能把角色的喜怒哀乐生动地“形于外”;譬如逼真表演剧中人物的狂怒时,演员自己决不认真冒火发怒。塞万提斯也借堂.吉诃德之口说:“喜剧里最聪明的角色是傻乎乎的小丑,因为扮演傻角的决不是傻子。”我们中国的谚语则是:先学无情后学戏。钱先生并且说,几下里对照看,便可感到狄德罗的理论使我们对中国的这句老话刮目相看,认识到它的深厚义蕴,而中国的老话在给十万八千里外的狄德罗以声摇,由此我们可以认识到狄德罗的理论不是一个洋人的偏见或诡辩。

 看到这一节,我想到莫罗阿的《恋爱与牺牲----女优之像》里对西登斯夫人的描述。而这个“诡论”,在王尔德的小说《道林格雷德画像》里有最淋漓尽致,最令人惘然的表现:道林邀请他最好的两个朋友去看他心目中无与伦比的造物,他的爱人西比尔的演出,然而西比尔令所有人失望。道林的失望,愤怒和沮丧,沉浸在爱情里西比尔浑然不觉,她对自己糟透了的表演无比满意,她对道林说(按:这一段是我自己翻译,原文附在本文后):

 “道林,遇到你之前,演戏是我生活唯一的真实,只有在剧院演出时,我才是活着的。我想着那全是真的。今天我是罗萨琳德,明天我成了波西亚;比亚特丽丝的欢乐就是我的欢乐,科黛丽亚的哀伤也是我的哀伤。我相信那一切。和我演对手戏的凡人在我看去就如天神一般,舞台上画就的布景就是我的世界。我除了映像其实一无所知,而我把它们全当真的。然后你来了---哦,我爱!你使我囚禁的灵魂得以自由,你教我明白到底什么是真实。今夜,在我生命里,我第一次看透我演惯的这些戏剧有多空虚,多佯装,多愚蠢;今夜,我第一次开始意识到罗密欧有多老,多丑,还化着装;我第一次意识到果园里的月光是假造的,那些场景有多么庸俗;我不得不说的那些台词有多虚假,那不是我的话,不是我想说的话。你带给了我一种更高的东西,和它相比,所有的艺术只不过是倒影。你让我明白了爱情到底是什么。我爱!我心上的人!我生命的王子!我厌恶那些假像,你远远超出一切艺术曾对我的意味,那些戏里的傀儡和我有什么相干?今晚演出的时候,不知怎么,一切都从我身上离开了。我本以为我会演得更出色,可却发现自己毫无作为。刹那间我的灵魂一片透亮,我明白了这一切的意味,太强烈,太微妙了。我听到他们的嘘声,可我微笑。他们怎么可能明白我和你的爱?带我走吧,道林 --- 带我走 ,去一个只有我们俩的地方。我恨这舞台。我也许能摹仿我没有的激情,可我没法摹仿已经像火一样烧着我的激情。哦,道林,道林,现在你明白这意味了么?----我爱着,却要去表演爱,即使我能做到,那也是亵渎。你让我看到了这一切。”

 然而在道林,一切都破灭了:“没有你的艺术,你什么也不是(Without your art you are nothing)。 ”他对西比尔说,然后他极度痛苦地离去。

 《红楼梦》里说:假做真时真亦假。

       附原文:

"Dorian, Dorian,' she cried, "before I knew you, acting was the one reality of my life.It was only in the theatre that I lived. I thought that it was all true. I was Rosalind one night, and Portia the other. The joy of Beatrice was my joy, and the sorrows of Cordelia were minealso. I believed in everything. The common people who acted with me seemed to me to be godlike. The painted scenes were my world. I knew nothing but shadows, and I thoughr them real. You came---oh,my beautiful love! ---and you freed my soul from prison. You taught me what reality really is. Tonighr, for the first time in my life, I saw through the hollowness, the sham, the silliness of the empty pageant in which I had always played. Tonight, for the first time, I became conscious that the Romeo was hideous, and old, and painted, that the moonlight in the orchard was false, that the scenery was vulgar, and that the words I had to speak were unreal, were not my words, were not what I wanted to say. You had brought me something higher, something of which all art is but a reflection. You had made me understand what love really is. My love! Prince Charming! Prince of life! I have grown sick of shadows. You are more to me than all art can ever be. What have I to do with the puppets of a play? When I came on tonight, I could not understand how it was that everything had gone from me. I thought that I was going to be wonderful. I found that I could do nothing. Suddenly it dawned on my soul what it all meant. The knowledge was exquisite to me. I heard them hissing, and I smiled. What could they know of love such as ours? Take me away, Dorian---- take me away with you, where we can be quite alone. I hate the stage. I might mimic a passion that I do not feel, but I cannoy mimic one that burns me like fire. Oh, Dorian, Dorian, you understand now what it signifies? Even if I could do it, it would be profanation for me to play at being in love. You have made me see that.

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