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2010-05-18 10:00:29|  分类: 我的翻译 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I doubt if all the philosophy in the world can succeed in suppressing slavery;it will, at most, change the name. I can well imagine forms of servitude worse than our own,because more insidious, whether they transform men into stupid, complacent machines, who believe themselves free just when they are most subjugated, or whether to the exclusion of leisure and pleasures essential to man they develop a passion for work as violent as the passion for war among barbarous races. To suh bondage for the human mind and imagination I prefer even our avowed slavery. However that may be, the horrible condition which puts one man at the mercy of another ought to be carefully regulated by law.I saw to it that a slave should no longer be anonymous merchandise sold without regard for the family ties which he has formed, or a contemptible object whom a judge submits to torture before taking his testimony, instead of accepting it upon oath. I prohibited forced entry of slaves into disreputable or dangerous occupations, forbidding their sale to brothel keepers, or to schools of gladiators. Let only those who like such professions practice them; the professions will but gain thereby. On farms, where overseers exploit the strength of slaves, I have replaced the latter, wherever possible, by free shareholders. Our collections of anecdotes abound in stories of gourmets who feed their household servants to their fish, but scandalous crimes are readily punishable, and are insignificant in comparison with the thousands of routine atrocities perpetrated daily by correct but heartless people whom no one would think of questioning. There was a great outcry when I banished from Rome a rich and highly esteemed patrician woman who maltreated her aged slaves; any bad son who neglects his old parents shocks the public conscience more, but I see little difference between these two forms of inhumanity.



One evening in Osroes' tent, during a feast given in my honor, I observed among the women and long-eyelashed pages a naked, emaciated man who sat utterly motionless.His eyes were wide open, but he seemed to see nothing of that confusion of acrobats and dancers, or those dishes laden with biands. I addressed him through my interpreter but he deigned no reply, for this was indeed a sage. His disciples, however, were more loquacious;these pious beggars came from India,and their master belonged to the powerful caste of Brahmans. I gathered that his meditations led him to believe that the whole universe is only a tissue of illusion and error;for him self-denial, renunciation, death were the sole means of escape from this changing flood of forms whereon, on the contrary, our Heraclitus had willingly been borne along.Beyond the world of the senses he hoped to rejoin the sphere of the purely divine, that unmoving firmament of which Plato, too, had dreamed.一天晚上,在奥斯若埃斯的大帐里,在一场专为我举办的盛宴中,我注意到在那些女人和长着长睫毛的侍童中间有一个瘦弱的,赤身露体的男人一动不动地坐在那里。他的眼睛大张着,可他似乎对周围喧闹的杂耍演员和舞蹈者以及满是佳肴的盘盘盏盏一概视若无睹。我通过我的翻译向他说话,可他并不屈尊作答,他是个真正的圣贤。他的追随者们却话多得多;这些虔诚的乞讨者来自印度,他们的主人属于强有势力的婆罗门。我推断,是他的冥想使他相信:整个宇宙不过是一连串的幻相和谬误;对他来说,要摆脱这变化的形态洪流----这正是我们的赫拉克里特欣然所恃的宇宙本质,唯一的手段是忘我,放弃,和死亡。他期待着进入一个感官世界之外的纯粹超凡的境界,那静止的虚空,柏拉图也曾向往过。

 I got some inkling,therefor, in spite of the bungling of my interpreters,of conceptions not unlike those of certain of our philosophers,but expressed by this Indian with more absolute finality. He had reached the state where nothing was left,except his body, to separate him from intangible deity,without substance or form, and with which he would unite;he had resolved to burn himself alive that next morning.Osroes invited me to the solemnity. A pyre of fragrant woods was prepared; the man leaped into it and disappeared without one cry.His disciples gave no sign of sorrow;for them it was not a funeral ceremony.尽管我的翻译们比较糟糕,我还是从中得到了某些概念的暗示。这些概念与我们的哲学家所确信的那些并非不同,只是这个印度人的表达更彻底决绝。他已经到达这样一种状态:在他和他想与之结为一体的神明境界之间,只剩下他的躯体这个阻隔,那个境界没有形式也没有实质;他已决定第二天早上自焚。奥斯若埃斯邀请我参加这一严肃的仪式。火葬用的柴堆准备好了,散发着香味,这个人纵身跃入火堆,一声喊叫也没有,就消失了。他的追随者们没有显出悲哀的样子,对他们来说,这并不是一场葬礼。
I pondered these things far into the night which followed.There I lay on a carpet of finest wool on the floor of a tent hung with gleaming brocades. A page massaged my feet. From without came the few sounds of that Asiatic night:the whispering of slaves at my door;the soft rustle of a palm,and Opramosa'snores behind a curtain;the stamp of a horse's hoof;from farther away,in the women's quarters, the melancholy murmur of a song. All of that had left the Brahman unmoved. In his veritable passion of refusal he had given himself to the flames as a lover to bed.He had cast off everything and everyone,and finally himself, like so many garments which served to conceal from him that unique presence, the invisible void which was his all. 随之而来的那个夜晚,我久久地沉思着这些事情。帐篷里悬挂着微微闪光的织锦,我卧在一张最好的羊毛毯上,一个侍童按摩着我的脚。外面传来这个亚洲夜晚的些许声响:奴隶们在窃窃私语;棕榈叶发出轻微的簌簌声,奥普拉莫沙在帷幕后面打鼾;有一匹马在蹾蹄;再远一些,从女人们的住处传来忧郁低沉的歌吟。所有这一切都不能让那个婆罗门有丝毫动心。他真正的激情在于拒绝,满怀这样的激情,他投身入火,正如一个情人扑向爱床。他摆脱了一切人和事,最后摆脱了自身,犹如脱去一层层外衣,这些外衣只为对他隐瞒那唯一的存在----无形的虚空,而那是他的一切。

I felt myself to be different,and ready for wider choice.Austerity,renunciation,negation were not wholly new to me;I had been drawn to them young (as is almost always the case),at the age of twenty. I was even younger when a friend in Rome took me to see the aged Epictetus in his hovel in the Suburra,shortly before Domitian ordered his exile. As in his slave days, when a brutal master failed to extract from him even one cry,though the beating broke his leg, so now grown old and frail he was patiently bearing the slow torments of gravel;yet he seemed to me to enjoy a liberty which was almost divine.His crutches, his pallet,the earthenware lamp and wooden spoon in its vessel of clay were objects of admiration to me, the simple tools of a pure life.我感到我有所不同,而且我准备好要更广泛地去选择。苦行,放弃,否定,这些对我并不是全新的东西。年轻时我就被它们吸引过(年轻差不多总是这样),那会儿我二十岁。比那还要年轻的时候,我的一个罗马的朋友曾带我去探望过年老的埃皮克提图,他住在一间简陋的小屋里,那之后不久图密善就下令把他流放了。在他还是奴隶的时候,一个野蛮的主人把他的腿打断也没能使他哪怕喊叫一声,如今日渐衰老和虚弱的他耐心地忍受着膀胱结石缓慢的折磨;然而在我看来,他似乎享受着一种近乎超凡的自由的乐趣。他的拐杖,他的窄硬的床铺,陶制的灯以及土罐里的木勺,都是我钦佩和羡慕的对象,它们是一种纯洁生活的简单工具。

 But Epictetus gave up too many things, and I had been quick to observe that nothing was more dangerously easy for me than mere renunciation. This Indian, more logically, was rejecting life itself. There was much to learn from such pure-hearted fanatics, but on the condition of turning the lesson from the meaning originally intended.These sages were trying to rediscover their god above and beyond the ocean of forms, and to reduce him to that quality of the unique, intangible, and incorporeal which he had foregone in the very act of becoming universe. I perceived differently my relations with the divine. I could see myself as seconding the deity in his effort to give form and order to a world,to develop and multiply its convolutions,extensions, and complexities. I was one of the segments of the wheel, an aspect of that unique force caught up in the multiplicity of things;I was eagle and bull, man and swan, phallus and brain all together, a Proteus who is also a Jupiter.


       朱庇特: 罗马神话里的主神。


Catastrophe and ruin will come; disorder will triumph, but order will too, from time to time. Peace will again establish itself between two periods of war; the words humanity, liberty, and justice will here and there regain the meaning which we have tried to give them. Not all our books will perish, nor our statues, if broken, lie unrepaired; other domes and other pediments will arise from our domes and pediments; some few men will think and work and feel as we have done, and I venture to count upon such continuators, placed irregularly throughout the centuries, and upon this kind of intermittent immortality. 灾难和毁灭还会来临,混乱将会胜利,然而秩序也将时不时赢得它的胜利。两次战争的间歇总会有和平,自由、公正、博爱,这些词语将重新获得我们试图赋予它们的意义。不是所有的书籍都会被毁掉,我们的塑像,即使被破坏,也不会完全无法修复;从我们的废墟中将有别的圆顶和山墙矗立起来;只有极少数人会想我们所想,做我们所做;这些继承者,在世纪的长河中将时不时出现,而我斗胆仰赖他们,仰赖这间断性的永恒。

Little soul, gentle and drifting, guest and companion of my body, now you will dwell below in pallid places, stark and bare; there you will abandon your play of yore. But one mement still, let us gaze together on these familiar shores, on these objects which doubtless we shall not see again . . . Let us try, if we can, to enter into death with open eyes. . .  温柔飘忽的灵魂...我身体的伴侣和客人,从此你将徘徊在那晦暗静寂的地方,纯粹、荒凉、无遮无拦;那儿,你将遗弃所有往昔的游戏。可是,再等一下,让我们一起凝视那些熟悉的海岸吧,那些毫无疑问我们再也看不到的东西. . .让我们试试----如果可能----睁着眼进入死亡......


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