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旧译----《哈德良回忆录》片断(三)  

2010-05-18 10:00:29|  分类: 我的翻译 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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2007-02-21

I doubt if all the philosophy in the world can succeed in suppressing slavery;it will, at most, change the name. I can well imagine forms of servitude worse than our own,because more insidious, whether they transform men into stupid, complacent machines, who believe themselves free just when they are most subjugated, or whether to the exclusion of leisure and pleasures essential to man they develop a passion for work as violent as the passion for war among barbarous races. To suh bondage for the human mind and imagination I prefer even our avowed slavery. However that may be, the horrible condition which puts one man at the mercy of another ought to be carefully regulated by law.I saw to it that a slave should no longer be anonymous merchandise sold without regard for the family ties which he has formed, or a contemptible object whom a judge submits to torture before taking his testimony, instead of accepting it upon oath. I prohibited forced entry of slaves into disreputable or dangerous occupations, forbidding their sale to brothel keepers, or to schools of gladiators. Let only those who like such professions practice them; the professions will but gain thereby. On farms, where overseers exploit the strength of slaves, I have replaced the latter, wherever possible, by free shareholders. Our collections of anecdotes abound in stories of gourmets who feed their household servants to their fish, but scandalous crimes are readily punishable, and are insignificant in comparison with the thousands of routine atrocities perpetrated daily by correct but heartless people whom no one would think of questioning. There was a great outcry when I banished from Rome a rich and highly esteemed patrician woman who maltreated her aged slaves; any bad son who neglects his old parents shocks the public conscience more, but I see little difference between these two forms of inhumanity.

 我怀疑世上有哪一种哲学能够成功地消灭奴隶制,哲学至多将给它换个名称。我可以充分想象一些比我们的更坏的奴役形式,因为它们更阴险。在那些形式里,人要么被变成愚蠢自得的机器,恰恰在完全被牵制时相信自己是自由的;要么排斥属于人类基本需要的闲暇和快乐,发展出一种对工作的激情,这种激情犹如蛮族对战争的激情那样强烈。比之对人类精神与想象力的奴役及束缚,我甚至宁愿选择我们公开承认的奴隶制。然而,无论如何这种一个人受另一个人支配的可怕情形应该通过谨慎的立法得到管制与调节。我注意着使一个奴隶不能再仅仅被当成一件无名的商品,被出卖时毫不考虑他已经建立起来的家庭关系,也不能再被当作一个可鄙的对象,法官可以不听他的宣誓,在提取证词之前就屈打成招。我禁止强迫奴隶去从事不体面的或危险的职业,禁止把奴隶卖给妓院或者角斗训练学校,让那些喜欢这类职业的人自己去从事它们好了,这才得其所哉。农庄是工头们压榨奴隶的地方,我已尽可能用自由的佃农来取代后者。在人们津津乐道的奇闻怪事里充斥着诸如美食家拿自己的仆人喂鱼之类的故事,殊不知臭名昭著的罪行很容易被惩罚,而在日常生活中,一些体面的但却没心肝的人每天都在犯下的暴行人们却想也没想过要去质问一下,两相比较,那些受到处罚的罪行简直微乎其微。当一名富有而且备受尊敬的贵族夫人因为虐待她年老的奴隶而被我驱逐出罗马的时候,引起一片哗然;而任何一个不孝之子如果对他年事已高的父母毫不在意,公众的良心受到的震动都会超过前者,但是,在我看来这两种非人道没什么区别。

2007-10

One evening in Osroes' tent, during a feast given in my honor, I observed among the women and long-eyelashed pages a naked, emaciated man who sat utterly motionless.His eyes were wide open, but he seemed to see nothing of that confusion of acrobats and dancers, or those dishes laden with biands. I addressed him through my interpreter but he deigned no reply, for this was indeed a sage. His disciples, however, were more loquacious;these pious beggars came from India,and their master belonged to the powerful caste of Brahmans. I gathered that his meditations led him to believe that the whole universe is only a tissue of illusion and error;for him self-denial, renunciation, death were the sole means of escape from this changing flood of forms whereon, on the contrary, our Heraclitus had willingly been borne along.Beyond the world of the senses he hoped to rejoin the sphere of the purely divine, that unmoving firmament of which Plato, too, had dreamed.一天晚上,在奥斯若埃斯的大帐里,在一场专为我举办的盛宴中,我注意到在那些女人和长着长睫毛的侍童中间有一个瘦弱的,赤身露体的男人一动不动地坐在那里。他的眼睛大张着,可他似乎对周围喧闹的杂耍演员和舞蹈者以及满是佳肴的盘盘盏盏一概视若无睹。我通过我的翻译向他说话,可他并不屈尊作答,他是个真正的圣贤。他的追随者们却话多得多;这些虔诚的乞讨者来自印度,他们的主人属于强有势力的婆罗门。我推断,是他的冥想使他相信:整个宇宙不过是一连串的幻相和谬误;对他来说,要摆脱这变化的形态洪流----这正是我们的赫拉克里特欣然所恃的宇宙本质,唯一的手段是忘我,放弃,和死亡。他期待着进入一个感官世界之外的纯粹超凡的境界,那静止的虚空,柏拉图也曾向往过。

 I got some inkling,therefor, in spite of the bungling of my interpreters,of conceptions not unlike those of certain of our philosophers,but expressed by this Indian with more absolute finality. He had reached the state where nothing was left,except his body, to separate him from intangible deity,without substance or form, and with which he would unite;he had resolved to burn himself alive that next morning.Osroes invited me to the solemnity. A pyre of fragrant woods was prepared; the man leaped into it and disappeared without one cry.His disciples gave no sign of sorrow;for them it was not a funeral ceremony.尽管我的翻译们比较糟糕,我还是从中得到了某些概念的暗示。这些概念与我们的哲学家所确信的那些并非不同,只是这个印度人的表达更彻底决绝。他已经到达这样一种状态:在他和他想与之结为一体的神明境界之间,只剩下他的躯体这个阻隔,那个境界没有形式也没有实质;他已决定第二天早上自焚。奥斯若埃斯邀请我参加这一严肃的仪式。火葬用的柴堆准备好了,散发着香味,这个人纵身跃入火堆,一声喊叫也没有,就消失了。他的追随者们没有显出悲哀的样子,对他们来说,这并不是一场葬礼。
I pondered these things far into the night which followed.There I lay on a carpet of finest wool on the floor of a tent hung with gleaming brocades. A page massaged my feet. From without came the few sounds of that Asiatic night:the whispering of slaves at my door;the soft rustle of a palm,and Opramosa'snores behind a curtain;the stamp of a horse's hoof;from farther away,in the women's quarters, the melancholy murmur of a song. All of that had left the Brahman unmoved. In his veritable passion of refusal he had given himself to the flames as a lover to bed.He had cast off everything and everyone,and finally himself, like so many garments which served to conceal from him that unique presence, the invisible void which was his all. 随之而来的那个夜晚,我久久地沉思着这些事情。帐篷里悬挂着微微闪光的织锦,我卧在一张最好的羊毛毯上,一个侍童按摩着我的脚。外面传来这个亚洲夜晚的些许声响:奴隶们在窃窃私语;棕榈叶发出轻微的簌簌声,奥普拉莫沙在帷幕后面打鼾;有一匹马在蹾蹄;再远一些,从女人们的住处传来忧郁低沉的歌吟。所有这一切都不能让那个婆罗门有丝毫动心。他真正的激情在于拒绝,满怀这样的激情,他投身入火,正如一个情人扑向爱床。他摆脱了一切人和事,最后摆脱了自身,犹如脱去一层层外衣,这些外衣只为对他隐瞒那唯一的存在----无形的虚空,而那是他的一切。

I felt myself to be different,and ready for wider choice.Austerity,renunciation,negation were not wholly new to me;I had been drawn to them young (as is almost always the case),at the age of twenty. I was even younger when a friend in Rome took me to see the aged Epictetus in his hovel in the Suburra,shortly before Domitian ordered his exile. As in his slave days, when a brutal master failed to extract from him even one cry,though the beating broke his leg, so now grown old and frail he was patiently bearing the slow torments of gravel;yet he seemed to me to enjoy a liberty which was almost divine.His crutches, his pallet,the earthenware lamp and wooden spoon in its vessel of clay were objects of admiration to me, the simple tools of a pure life.我感到我有所不同,而且我准备好要更广泛地去选择。苦行,放弃,否定,这些对我并不是全新的东西。年轻时我就被它们吸引过(年轻差不多总是这样),那会儿我二十岁。比那还要年轻的时候,我的一个罗马的朋友曾带我去探望过年老的埃皮克提图,他住在一间简陋的小屋里,那之后不久图密善就下令把他流放了。在他还是奴隶的时候,一个野蛮的主人把他的腿打断也没能使他哪怕喊叫一声,如今日渐衰老和虚弱的他耐心地忍受着膀胱结石缓慢的折磨;然而在我看来,他似乎享受着一种近乎超凡的自由的乐趣。他的拐杖,他的窄硬的床铺,陶制的灯以及土罐里的木勺,都是我钦佩和羡慕的对象,它们是一种纯洁生活的简单工具。

 But Epictetus gave up too many things, and I had been quick to observe that nothing was more dangerously easy for me than mere renunciation. This Indian, more logically, was rejecting life itself. There was much to learn from such pure-hearted fanatics, but on the condition of turning the lesson from the meaning originally intended.These sages were trying to rediscover their god above and beyond the ocean of forms, and to reduce him to that quality of the unique, intangible, and incorporeal which he had foregone in the very act of becoming universe. I perceived differently my relations with the divine. I could see myself as seconding the deity in his effort to give form and order to a world,to develop and multiply its convolutions,extensions, and complexities. I was one of the segments of the wheel, an aspect of that unique force caught up in the multiplicity of things;I was eagle and bull, man and swan, phallus and brain all together, a Proteus who is also a Jupiter.

可是埃皮克提图放弃太多东西了,我很快断定对我来说,没有什么比仅仅放弃更容易也更危险的了。这个印度人更符合逻辑,他拒绝了生命本身。在这种真诚的狂热者身上有更多东西可学,不过条件是把学到的东西用于和他们的根本意图正相反的方向上。这些圣贤试图超越形式的海洋,重新发现他们的神明,把他还原到那独有的,无以言明的,非实质的,在其成为宇宙之前的那种性质。我感到我和神的关系有所不同。我看到的是:在神明赋予这个世界形式和秩序,并不断以各种方式去发展和丰富其复杂性的努力中,我作为支持其努力的力量而存在,我是轮子的一节,我是事物多样性的一个方面;我是老鹰和公牛,人类和天鹅,生殖器和头脑的总和,一个普罗特斯同时也就是一个朱庇特

-------------------------------------- 
 注:普罗特斯:能任意改变自己外形的海神。
       朱庇特: 罗马神话里的主神。

2008-05

Catastrophe and ruin will come; disorder will triumph, but order will too, from time to time. Peace will again establish itself between two periods of war; the words humanity, liberty, and justice will here and there regain the meaning which we have tried to give them. Not all our books will perish, nor our statues, if broken, lie unrepaired; other domes and other pediments will arise from our domes and pediments; some few men will think and work and feel as we have done, and I venture to count upon such continuators, placed irregularly throughout the centuries, and upon this kind of intermittent immortality. 灾难和毁灭还会来临,混乱将会胜利,然而秩序也将时不时赢得它的胜利。两次战争的间歇总会有和平,自由、公正、博爱,这些词语将重新获得我们试图赋予它们的意义。不是所有的书籍都会被毁掉,我们的塑像,即使被破坏,也不会完全无法修复;从我们的废墟中将有别的圆顶和山墙矗立起来;只有极少数人会想我们所想,做我们所做;这些继承者,在世纪的长河中将时不时出现,而我斗胆仰赖他们,仰赖这间断性的永恒。

Little soul, gentle and drifting, guest and companion of my body, now you will dwell below in pallid places, stark and bare; there you will abandon your play of yore. But one mement still, let us gaze together on these familiar shores, on these objects which doubtless we shall not see again . . . Let us try, if we can, to enter into death with open eyes. . .  温柔飘忽的灵魂...我身体的伴侣和客人,从此你将徘徊在那晦暗静寂的地方,纯粹、荒凉、无遮无拦;那儿,你将遗弃所有往昔的游戏。可是,再等一下,让我们一起凝视那些熟悉的海岸吧,那些毫无疑问我们再也看不到的东西. . .让我们试试----如果可能----睁着眼进入死亡......

 

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